Chimerism analysis is important for the evaluation of engraftment and predicting relapse following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We developed a chimerism analysis for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including rapid screening of the discriminable donor/recipient alleles using droplet allele-specific PCR (droplet-AS-PCR) pre-HSCT and quantitation of recipient DNA using AS-quantitative PCR (AS-qPCR) following HSCT. SNP genotyping of 20 donor/recipient pairs via droplet-AS-PCR and the evaluation of the informativity of 5 SNP markers for chimerism analysis were performed. Samples from six follow-up patients were analyzed to assess the chimerism via AS-qPCR. These results were compared with that determined by short tandem repeat PCR (STR-PCR). Droplet-AS-PCR could determine genotypes within 8min. The total informativity using all 5 loci was 95% (19/20). AS-qPCR provided the percentage of recipient DNA in all 6 follow-up patients without influence of the stutter peak or the amplification efficacy, which affected the STR-PCR results. The droplet-AS-PCR had an advantage over STR-PCR in terms of rapidity and simplicity for screening before HSCT. Furthermore, AS-qPCR had better accuracy than STR-PCR for quantification of recipient DNA following HSCT. The present chimerism assay compensates for the disadvantages of STR-PCR and is readily performable in clinical laboratories.