Gas chromatography is a common analytic technique used to separate and analyze volatile compounds in the gas phase. GC is applied in many industries for quality control, and to identify and/or quantify compounds in a mixture.
Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical tool used to identify compounds, determine chemical structure, and assess isotopic abundance. In MS, samples are ionized, and the resulting ions are identified based on their mass-to-charge (m/z) ratios.
Photometry measures the amount of an analyte in a sample solution based on the light absorbed. Reflectometry measures reflected light of a surface determining characteristics such as color to draw conclusions on e.g. analyte concentrations.
NMR spectroscopy is an analytic technique to determine molecular structure, chemical composition and purity. NMR detects the energy absorbed due to nuclear spin states in the presence of a strong magnetic field.
Atomic spectroscopy uses the energy absorbed or emitted by electrons to identify and quantify the elemental composition of a sample. It includes various analytical techniques, such as AAS, AES, FAA, GFAA, ICP-OES, ICP-MS and XRF.
Titration is an analytical method to determine an unknown concentration using a solution of known concentration. Karl Fischer titration is a specific and widely used titration method to determine the water content of raw materials and finished products.
Reference materials are critical to method validation, calibration, qualification, and measurement of uncertainty. The proper selection of the reference material best suited for the testing application is vital, as results are only as accurate as the reference.